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Near the coast the rainy season lasts longer, and the rainfall is heavier, diminishing eastward.
At Yundum the average annual rainfall is about 50 inches (1,300 mm), and the mean monthly temperature tends to be in the upper 70s F (mid-20s C), while at Basse Santa Su, about 270 miles (435 km) inland, the comparable figures are about 40 inches (1,000 mm) and the low 80s F (upper 20s C).
The major ethnic groups are similar to those in Senegal and consist of the majority Malinke and also include Wolof, Fulani (Fulbe), Diola (Jola), and Soninke peoples.
The Gambian economy is heavily dependent on peanut (groundnut) production and export.
(from a Mande word meaning “beyond the swamp”), and the sandstone uplands.
Most rural settlement is concentrated on the uplands, which have the best-drained soils.
Some amounts of clay, sand, and gravel are excavated for local use.
Few wild animals are native to the region, and those that survive are under pressure from the human and domestic animal populations.
In the middle and upper river areas there are warthogs, monkeys, baboons, antelope, pygmy hippopotamuses, and crocodiles.
The land is flat and is dominated by the river, which is navigable throughout the length of the country.
The peculiar shape and size of the country are the result of territorial compromises made during the 19th century by Great Britain, which controlled the lower Gambia River, and France, which ruled the neighbouring colony of Senegal.Although the country’s small ocean coastline limits marine fishing, there is some potential for commercial fishing offshore and in the river.